Useful Links

Pest Risk Assessments

Decision support

The European and Mediterranean Plant Protection Organisation (EPPO) developed a decision-support system to aid in undertaking pest risk analyses under theISPM no. 11 on pest risk analysis for quarantine pests including analysis of environmental risks and living modified organisms.  The system is called CAPRA (Computer Assisted Pest Risk Analysis).

Completed pest risk assessments

Completed risk assessments published by the European and Mediterranean Plant Protection Organisation (EPPO) can be found here.

Niche modelling software

CLIMEX (Kriticos et al. 2015) can be purchased from Hearne Scientific Software.

Climate data

The CliMond website provides free climate data intended to support a variety of bioclimatic modelling methods.  The dataset compilation process is described in Kriticos et al. (2014).

Species distribution data

The Global Biodiversity Information Facility (GBIF) provides species taxonomic and distribution data.

The Atlas of Living Australia provides a similar resource as GBIF, but with additional visualisation and modelling tools.

Non-climatic habitat modelling data

In pest risk assessment it is often useful to consider non-climatic habitat factors, especially those associated with human crop production.

Crop geography

The spatial distribution and intensity of major crops can be found on the Mapspam website.  This dataset combines reported crop production statistics and cropping habitat models.  The SPatial Allocation Model (You et al. 2014) apportions the reported production statistics to putative cropping areas within the statistical reporting areas.


The Global Map of Irrigated Areas (GMIA) can be found on the Aquastat site of the Food and Agriculture Organisation (FAO).   The dataset is described in Siebert et al. (2005) and Portmann et al. (2010).  The dataset has some minor issues with some moderately large areas in Sharan Africa and Western Australia that have extremely minor irrigation being tagged as irrigated.


Global land cover data is available at 10′ spatial resolution from the European Space Agency (Bontemp et al. 2011). Â You should be wary that the dataset does not capture dynamic landscapes very well.  For example, a managed forestry patch could appear as wasteland, grassland, shrubland or forest during different phases of the forest cycle,


Bontemps, S., P. Defourny, E. Bogaert, O. Arino, V. Kalogirou, and J. Perez. 2011. GLOBCOVER 2009 – Products Description and Validation Report.

Kriticos, D. J., B. L. Webber, A. Leriche, N. Ota, J. Bathols, I. Macadam, and J. K. Scott. 2012. CliMond: global high resolution historical and future scenario climate surfaces for bioclimatic modelling. Methods in Ecology and Evolution 3:53-64.

Kriticos, D. J., G. F. Maywald, T. Yonow, E. J. Zurcher, N. I. Herrmann, and R. W. Sutherst. 2015. CLIMEX Version 4: Exploring the Effects of Climate on Plants, Animals and Diseases. CSIRO, Canberra.

Portmann, F. T., S. Siebert, and P. Doll. 2010. MIRCA2000-Global monthly irrigated and rainfed crop areas around the year 2000: A new high-resolution data set for agricultural and hydrological modeling. Global Biogeochemical Cycles 24:Gb1011.

Siebert, S., P. Doll, J. Hoogeveen, J. M. Faures, K. Frenken, and S. Feick. 2005. Development and validation of the global map of irrigation areas. Hydrology and Earth System Sciences 9:535-547.

You, L., U. Wood-Sichra, S. Fritz, Z. Guo, L. See, and J. Koo. 2014. Spatial Production Allocation Model (SPAM) 2005 Version 1. International Food Policy Research Institute.